Friday, February 7, 2020
Family Involvement Model in Early Childhood Education - Essay Example The primary teachers of children are the parents or guardians, and the primary school is the home. Education starts at home. The home is the foundation of learning. Even when the children are going to school, the family continues to support learning at home. Learning does not begin and end at school. It is just where formal learning takes place and is just one of the venues for educating children. The family is a part of the community. Support of the community in the Learning Programs of children makes education more effective. An active community working hand in hand with families creates an enriching learning environment and a continuing learning venue from school for the children. Let us first define the period of early childhood. It begins from birth or infancy to age five. This is the period when major transformations take place: physical, social, intellectual, emotional and mental. It is the time when basic skills are learned which forms part of the learning foundation for use in later years. Basic skills include learning how to count, distinguishing letters, maintaining attention and remembering experiences. This is the phase when children develop their self-concept, which is influenced in great part by what they see and experience at home. They also develop their self-esteem and start to make friends at this period. ... The very basic theory deals with the basic needs of children and how these are met. Where does learning come into the hierarchy of needs and what are the prerequisite needs to make the process of education more effective are questions addressed by this theory. These theories espouse the importance of social interaction in the development of children. The theories stress the effects of experiences from these social interactions as major factors in the habits, attitudes, views and the eventual learning success or failure of children. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is the most basic theory in a child's development. This is important so we may understand the priorities of children and the possible distractions they may have to learning. In psychology, it is a motivational theory where needs of people are placed in a hierarchy starting with the most basic needs at the base (Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs). Abraham Maslow introduced the idea that the actions of people are determined by specific goals that they want to attain. A behavior is directed toward the satisfaction of a need. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is often represented by a pyramid with five levels. The first four levels are concerned with physiological needs and the topmost remaining level is concerned with growth needs. The premise is that the needs at the bottom or at the base have to be satisfied first before meeting the topmost need. Physiological needs like food, water, air, sleep and sex are at the bottom followed by Safety needs like health, property, e mployment and environmental security. The third level is Belongingness which includes family, friendship and love. Esteem including respect, self-esteem, accomplishments and confidence comprise the fourth level.
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Language as a Powerful Mind Control Weapon Essay Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949) is a classic dystopian novel by English author George Orwell. Akin to the latterÃ¢â¬â¢s earlier work, Animal Farm (1945), Nineteen Eighty-Four is a cautionary tale about the dangers of totalitarianism. The novelÃ¢â¬â¢s main character, Winston Smith, is a civil servant tasked with disseminating government propaganda through the forging of records and political literature. Disillusioned with such a mechanistic existence, Smith begins an uprising against the regime Ã¢â¬â a move which later resulted in his incarceration and torture. The esteem of Nineteen Eighty-Four can be attributed mainly to its frank and vivid portrayal of the perpetuation of the status quo at the expense of individual rights (Gearon 65). Many of the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s terminologies and ideas, such as Ã¢â¬Å"doublethink,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Orwellian,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"NewspeakÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Big Brother,Ã¢â¬ eventually acquired secure places in the English language (Trahair 289). At present, some thinkers even use these expressions and concepts to criticize repressive government policies. The term Ã¢â¬Å"Orwellian,Ã¢â¬ for instance, is currently an idiom that refers to any form of normalcy that closely resembles the Party (Cameron 151). One of OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s major arguments in the novel is that language is the totalitarian governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s most powerful weapon of mind control. Through the usage of deceptive language and propaganda, as well as the modification of language, the Party was able to manipulate the thoughts and beliefs of the citizens of Oceania. Newspeak was the PartyÃ¢â¬â¢s primary means of misleading the citizens of Oceania (Thomas, Singh, Peccei, Jones and Wareing 39). It was a corrupted form of Standard English (known in the novel as Oldspeak) that reflected the principles of Ingsoc. Ã¢â¬Å"UndesirableÃ¢â¬ words were eliminated from the lingua franca, while those that were retained were stripped of Ã¢â¬Å"unorthodoxÃ¢â¬ denotations (Ji 1). Consequently, it became impossible to develop other modes of thought in Newspeak (Orwell 144). Newspeak was more than just a language Ã¢â¬â it was the Ã¢â¬Å"(embodiment) of the totalitarian (mindset) of the Party membersÃ¢â¬ (Gerovitch 12). To accommodate alternate views would increase the possibility of encountering Ã¢â¬Å"hereticalÃ¢â¬ thoughts (Gerovitch 13). It is no longer surprising, therefore, if the Party required all inhabitants of Oceania to use Newspeak Ã¢â¬â doing so was a very convenient way of indoctrinating them with Ingsoc beliefs. The immense power of language to control the mind is not a fictional phenomenon. The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis (n. d. ) argued that language determined how human beings perceived their environment (Thomas, Singh, Peccei, Jones and Wareing 39). This assumption is composed of two parts Ã¢â¬â linguistic relativity and linguistic determinism. Linguistic relativity theorized that the languages of different cultures do not necessarily have equivalent systems of representation. Linguistic determinism, meanwhile, asserted that a language not only reflected certain aspects of reality but also influenced the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s thought process (Thomas, Singh, Peccei, Jones and Wareing 25). It would be fair to say that the premise behind the development and usage of Newspeak was based on the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis. In the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s appendix, it is revealed that Ingsoc was originally known as English Socialism (Orwell 143). But during the time of English Socialism, people spoke Standard English. Consequently, they were exposed to radical ideas that inspired them to turn against the Party (Ji 1). In retaliation, the Party silenced them through punishment and terror (Ji 1). The Party eventually viewed the period of English Socialism as one that was characterized with violence and lawlessness. Standard English, meanwhile, was regarded as a relic of an anarchic past that must be discarded at all costs. The Party even set a year in which they expected Standard English to be already nonexistent Ã¢â¬â 2050 (Orwell 143). In the appendix of the novel, Orwell wrote the PartyÃ¢â¬â¢s ultimate dream Ã¢â¬â a society wherein everyone accepted the official ideology even without the threat of punishment and terror (Ji 1). This was only possible, however, if they had no access to subversive ideas. It must be noted that in the context of the novel, Standard English was regarded as the source of dissident concepts. The Party therefore realized that Standard English must be replaced with a singular and specially contrived language Ã¢â¬â Newspeak. When people spoke, heard, read and wrote only in Newspeak, they could be kept under control even without outright state persecution (Ji 1). Newspeak was the official language of Oceania and had been devised to meet the ideological needs of Ingsoc, or English Socialism. In the year 1984 there was not as yet anyone who used Newspeak as his sole means of communication, either in speech or writing. The leading articles in The Times were written in it, but this was a tour de force which could only be carried out by a specialist. It was expected that Newspeak would have finally superseded Oldspeak (or Standard English, as we should call it) by about the year 2050. (143) The purpose of Newspeak was not only to provide a medium of expression for the (worldview) and mental habits proper to the devotees of Ingsoc, but to make all other modes of thought impossible. It was intended that when Newspeak had been adopted once and for all and Oldspeak forgotten, a heretical thought Ã¢â¬â that is, a thought diverging from the principles of Ingsoc Ã¢â¬â should be literally unthinkable, at least so far as thought is dependent on words. Its vocabulary was so constructed as to give exact and often very subtle expression to every meaning that a Party member could properly wish to express, while excluding all other meanings and also the possibility of arriving at them by indirect methods. This was done partly by the invention of new words, but chiefly by eliminating undesirable words and by stripping such words as remained of unorthodox meanings, and so far as possible of all secondary meanings whatever. To give a single example. The word free still existed in Newspeak, but it could only be used in such statements as Ã¢â¬Å"This dog is free from liceÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"This field is free from weeds. Ã¢â¬ It could not be used in its old sense of Ã¢â¬Å"politically freeÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"intellectually freeÃ¢â¬ since political and intellectual freedom no longer existed even as concepts, and were therefore of necessity nameless. (144) A person growing up with Newspeak as his sole language would no more know that equal had once had the secondary meaning of Ã¢â¬Å"politically equal,Ã¢â¬ or that free had once meant Ã¢â¬Å"intellectually free,Ã¢â¬ than for instance, a person who had never heard of chess would be aware of the secondary meanings attaching to queen and rook. There would be many crimes and errors which it would be beyond his power to commit, simply because they were nameless and therefore unimaginable. (148-149) This ambition, however, was not without serious consequences. The individual rights of the people of Oceania were severely violated. They constantly lived in fear of government reprisal Ã¢â¬â landscapes across London were bombarded with posters of Ã¢â¬Å"Big BrotherÃ¢â¬ with the caption Ã¢â¬Å"Big Brother is Watching YouÃ¢â¬ (Orwell 1). Two-way television sets Ã¢â¬â telescreens Ã¢â¬â were installed in all homes and public establishments in order to monitor the populace for any sign of subversive activity (thoughtcrime). Worse, the Party encouraged everyone to spy on one another. Even children were ordered to report their parents to the authorities (Thought Police) if they caught them committing a thoughtcrime. Winston Smith was among those who paid the ultimate price. Upon his arrest, he was taken to the Ministry of Love, where he was subjected to electroshock torture. Winston was afterwards taken to the infamous Room 101, where a prisoner was tortured by being exposed to his or her greatest fear. WinstonÃ¢â¬â¢s primal fear was rats Ã¢â¬â he was therefore tortured by having a wire cage full of starving rats brought near to his face. Petrified, Winston finally accepts Party ideology and was later released as a brainwashed individual. Sadly, it is obvious that OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s warning in Nineteen Eighty-Four went unheeded. At present, there are still so many societies wherein people are stripped of their basic rights and liberties. What is more saddening is that some of the parties who are guilty of this wrongdoing are actually claiming that they are staunch advocates of freedom, justice and equality. They use elaborate propaganda to proclaim their Ã¢â¬Å"advocacyÃ¢â¬ while acting in a completely opposite manner. The Party used language in order to keep the people of Oceania silent, ignorant and oppressed. In doing so, the former proved that evil prospers where good is silent. Orwell, on the other hand, used words in order to expose and fight this atrocity. In doing so, he proved that the pen is mightier than the sword. Works Cited Cameron, Deborah. Verbal Hygiene. New York: Routledge, 1995. Gearon, Liam. Freedom of Expression and Human Rights: Historical, Literary and Political Contexts. Eastbourne: Sussex Academic Press, 2006. Gerovitch, Slava. From Newspeak to Cyberspeak: A History of Soviet Cybernetics. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2004. Ji, Fengyuan. Linguistic Engineering: Language and Politics in MaoÃ¢â¬â¢s China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2004. Orwell, George. Nineteen Eighty-Four. n. p. : n. d. Thomas, Linda, Ishtla Singh, Jean Stilwell Peccei, Jason Jones, and Shan Wareing. Language, Society and Power: An Introduction. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 2004. Trahair, R. C. S. Utopia and Utopians: A Historical Dictionary. Santa Barbara: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
I have been asked to investigate how the temperature of an experiment affects the rate of reaction. In the experiment I will do it as the temperature of the hydrochloric acid. How Does the Temperature Affect the Rate of Reaction? Introduction I have been asked to investigate how the temperature of an experiment affects the rate of reaction. In the experiment I will do it as the temperature of the hydrochloric acid. Reaction rates can be explained by the Collision Theory. The rate of reaction depends on how often and how hard the reacting particles collide with each other. Basically the particles have to collide in order to react. If the temperature is increased, the particles will have more energy and so will move quicker. If they're moving quicker, they will have more collisions. Planning ======== Variables --------- The variables that may affect my investigation are: Ã · The temperature Ã · The size of the pieces of marble chips Ã · How much hydrochloric acid you use in the flask The variable that I am going to investigate is the temperature. This is because there is more of an advantage due to the fact that there is more of a range of temperature than there is in the size of marble chips you use or the amount of hydrochloric acid you use. Prediction I predict that when I increase the temperature of the experiment, the reaction will take place faster. This is because when the temperature increases, the particles will all mov...
Monday, January 13, 2020
I. The Definition of Education 1. We affirm that in its most basic meaning, education is the triune God teaching His truth to mankind. (Genesis 1:27-31; Psalms 19:1-9; 94:8,9; John 1:1-9). We deny that education is solely mental or physical activity associated with learning the thoughts and experiences of other human beings. (Psalm 119:99). 2. We affirm that education is the action or process by which a person comes to know and use GodÃ¢â¬â¢s truth, and the education is learning to think GodÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts after Him and to see things as He sees them. (Isaiah 55:8,9; John 5:19,20). We deny that education is merely the action or process by which a person acquires knowledge or skills. 3. We affirm that education is lifelong and that it incorporates every thought, experience, and activity of man. (Deuteronomy 6:7-12; 11:18-20; Isaiah 29:24; Matthew 9:13; 24:32; Mark 13:28; 1 Corinthians 4:6; 14:31). We deny that education is confined to formal schooling in traditional classroom settings or to tutorial relationshi ps. (Matthew 5:1-48; 6:1-34; 7:1-29; 11:29) II. The Purpose of Education 4. We affirm that the purpose of education is both to reveal God and to bring students into conformity with His revealed will. (Luke 24:27; John 7:17; 14:21, 23,24). We deny that the sole purpose of education is to accomplish human perfection and understanding of the material world. 5. We affirm that the ultimate goal of education should be to orient human beings Biblically toward the knowledge of God, humanity, and the rest of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s creation, in order to prepare them to take their places in family, Church, and society to the glory of God and in the service of ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s Kingdom and their fellowman. (2 Kings 22:8-23:26; Malachi 4:4-6; Matthew 20:26-28; Acts 16:30-34). We deny that the ultimate purpose of education should be human self-development and self-fulfillment. (Acts 2:37-47). III. The Nature and Role of God in Education 6. We affirm that God is the Creator and Sustainer of all things and is the Source of all truth. (Genesis 1:1-27; Psalm 55:22; 119:151; 121:1-8). We deny that human beings, society, or the external world are sources of truth in and of themselves. (Psalm 14:1). 7. We affirm that God created, sustains, and will consummate all things through His Son, the Lord Jesus Christ. Therefore, education must focus on the Person of Jesus Christ. (Hebrews 1:3; Colossians 1:15-17). We deny that Ã¢â¬Å"educationÃ¢â¬ that omits reference to JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ role in this world is education at all. (John 14:6). 8. We affirm that the Holy Spirit of God teaches and enlightens every believer in Jesus Christ and leads that person into all truth. (John 14:26; 15:26; 16:13).We deny that human beings can find or understand all truth through human effort alone. (Romans 3:11,12) 9. We affirm that the existing personal God has communicated truth to all mankind through personal revelation of Himself in Jesus Christ and through propositional, verbalized revelation of Himself in the Old and New Testaments of the Bible. (Genesis 15:1; 17:1; Exodus 3:2-15; Isaiah 6:1-8; Mark 9:7; Luke 3:22; 24:27; John 1:1,2; 12:28; Acts 9:4,5; Hebrews 1:2,3). We deny that the individual person is capable of learning all truth from within himself or from human teachers and secular learning materials. (John 7:15,16; 1 Timothy 6:3-5) IV. The Nature of Truth and Reality in Education 10. We affirm that truth is what is known to God about Himself and all of His creation, and that it is absolute, eternal, and objective. (Deuteronomy 32:4; Psalms 25:10; 57:3; 119:142,151). We deny that truth is solely what is known to one or more individuals or to mankind collectively, and that is relative, temporal, or subjective. (Romans 1:25; 3:3,4; 2 Thessalonians 2:9-12) 11. We affirm that the existing, personal-infinite God has chosen to reveal truth to us both through special revelation, which is communicated to us by means of the Bible and GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Son, Jesus Christ, and through general revelation, which is communicated to us by means of His rational and nonrational creation; and that education should entail the pursuit of learning, which is derived from all of these sources of revelation. (Genesis 1:28; 2:19,20; Daniel 4:37; John 1:14,17; 14:6; 2 Timothy 3:16,17; Hebrews 1:1,2). We deny that truth is found only in human beings, in nature, or in a combination of the two, and that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s sole purpose in education should be to attain learning apart from GodÃ¢â¬â¢s revelation. (I Kings 17:24; 1 John 2:27). 12. We affirm that in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s design all of the particular elements of the universe are united into a meaningful whole; that it is one purpose of education to help learners to find relationships among these elements and, thus, to find their meaning; and that Biblical revelation is the ultimate criterion for this meaning. (Genesis 1:1-31; Psalm 19:1). We deny that the particular elements of the universe exist without rationality, order, and meaningful relationships derived from the Supreme God. (Genesis 3:1-24) 13. We affirm that true reality originates with God and is spiritual and eternal, as well as material and temporal, and that the content of education is complete when it includes all true reality. We deny that true reality originates with mankind; that it is limited to what is material and temporal; and that the content of education is complete when it is limited to the study of material reality. (I John 2:27). V. The Content of Education 14. We affirm that freedom of inquiry is central to manÃ¢â¬â¢s innate desire for truth, and that all truth is GodÃ¢â¬â¢s truth. Therefore, we encourage inquiry into all fields of knowledge not forbidden in the Bible. (John 8:31,32; 2 Corinthians 3:17). We deny that public and private schools ought to restrict freedom of investigation into religion by teachers and students so long as that investigation does not interfere with the legitimate duties of teaching and learning. 15. We affirm that freedom of inquiry and academic freedom have a legitimate place in the pursuit of truth and in the framework of the learning and teaching process. (John 8:32,36). We deny that academic freedom implies the right to disobey or contradict the Scriptures as the embodiment of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s truth in this world, or to violate a contractural agreement with an employer. (James 3:14; 5:19) 16. We affirm that all curriculum content must be integrated with and interpreted by GodÃ¢â¬â¢s truth as revealed in the Bible. (John1:9; Romans 1:20; 2 Timothy 3:15-17). We deny that there is any real separation between secular and sacred truth, and that secular learning should be treated in isolation from GodÃ¢â¬â¢s revealed truth. (Philippians 4:8,9). 17. We affirm that scientific investigation is a valid and necessary means of studying the universe and of discovering its orderly operation. (Genesis 1:14; Psalms 19:1,2,4,6,7,8; 104:19; Daniel 2:21; Matthew 16:2,3; Luke 21:25,26). We deny that scientific investigation is incompatible with any truth revealed in the Bible, and that science education may rightly reject or ignore all non-empirical sources of truth. (Romans 1:19,20) 18. We affirm that God is the Author of all true ethics; that true ethics is based on absolute truth and unchanging principles of right and wrong, as revealed in the Bible; that there are ethical absolutes that apply equally to all people everywhere; and that one purpose of education should be to help students to discover these unchanging Biblical standards of right and wrong and to reflect on the logical consequences of departing from these standards. (Exodus 20:1-17; Deuteronomy 7:7-11; Matthew 5:17,18; Romans 1:19,20). We deny that students should be taught that neutrality with regard to ethics is either possible or desirable in any sphere of human activity; that people can choose what is right behavior for themselves without regard to the absolute standards of moral behavior revealed in the Bible; that ethics is situational; and that ethics can properly be based on the assumption that truth and morality are relative and changing. (Deuteronomy 28:14,15; 30:8-10; Matthew 5:19,20; Romans 1:25-32; 2 Thessalonians 2:4, 10-12; 2 Timothy 3:2,70 4:3,4). VI. The Nature and Role of the Learner 19. We affirm that a human being has worth because he has been created in the image of God. (Genesis 1:27; Romans 8:29,30). We deny that a person has worth merely because he exists or because he says it is so. (Psalm 33:16; 53:1-3; Proverbs 12:15; 14:9). 20. We affirm that every human being is created in the image of God and is, therefore, in need of development in the spiritual areas of existence as well as in the intellectual and physical areas, and that true education of the whole person must include attention to all three aspects of human life. (Genesis 1:26). We deny that human beings are merely higher animals without soul or spirit, and that any education that addresses only the intellect and body, while ignoring the spiritual aspect of human beings, is appropriate to their nature. 21. We affirm that, though we are created in the image of God, because of the fall of Adam we are born sinful and need to experience salvation through the redeeming work of Jesus Christ in order to r each our full potential. (Romans 5:8,10). We deny that we are born perfect and uncorrupted, and that we are inherently good by nature and in need of education alone to achieve our highest potential and to attain a state of fulfillment. (Romans 3:10-12,23). 22. We affirm that education must include the consideration of sin as a fact of human behavior. (Acts 2:38; Romans 1:28-32; 3:23-25; 6:23). We deny that textbooks and curricula should ignore the fact of sin or rebellion against God in human behavior. (Luke 3:7,8; Romans 6:12) 23. We affirm that people who are restored to a proper relationship with God must receive instruction from the Word of GodÃ¢â¬âthe BibleÃ¢â¬âconcerning the rights and responsibilities of this privileged position, and that providing such instruction is one of the most important responsibilities of education. (Proverbs 9:9). We deny that people can learn the rights and responsibilities of the Christian life without studying the revelation of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s truth in the Bible. (2 Timothy 3:14,15) 24. We affirm that students have the responsibility to attend to and to apply effort to a learning task. (Proverbs 23:12; Colossians 3:23; 2 Timothy 2:15). We deny that students are absolved from cooperating with a teacher and from exercising personal effort to learn. (Proverbs 5:12,13; 6:4-11; 13:4; 20:4) VII. What Education Should Produce in Learners 25. We affirm that education ought to cultivate in students the four basic skills of cognition, communication, imagination, and valuation. (2 Corinthians 10:5; Ephesians 4:29; Philippians 4:8,9). We deny that complete education can occur without attention to these four skills. (2 Timothy 2:15,16; 3:13; 4:3,4). 26. We affirm that education ought to promote development of the learner in at least three areas, viz., spiritual and moral growth, academic growth, and personal and social development. Examples of specific results in each area follow: 26.1 In spiritual and moral growth, learners should: (Psalm 143:10; Romans 10:9; 1 Corinthians 2:16; Colossians 3:23; 1 Thessalonians 4:7; 2 Timothy 3:16) 26.1.1. consider the Bible GodÃ¢â¬â¢s inspired Word and develop attitudes of love and respect toward it. 26.1.2. know the basic doctrines of the Bible. 26.1.3. have a desire to know and obey the will of God as revealed in the Scriptures. 26.1.4. make a decision to receive Jesus Christ as Savior and Lord. 26.1.5. develop an understanding of a ChristianÃ¢â¬â¢s role in the Church. 26.1.6. develop the mind of Christ toward right and wrong conduct. 26.1.7. develop self-discipline and responsibility bases on submission to God and all other authority. 26.1.8. develop a Christian world view. 26.2 In academic growth, learners should: (Philippians 4:8,9; Colossians 2:23; 3:16; 2 Timothy 2:15, 3:16,17) .26.2.1. reach their full academic potential. 26.2.2. gain a thorough command of the fundamental processes used in communicating with others, such as reading, writing, speaking, and listening. 26.2.3. develop a thorough comprehension and command of science and mathematics. 26.2.4. develop an appreciation for and understanding of the humanities. 26.2.5. develop the use of good study habits. 26.2.6. pursue independent study and perform independent research. 26.2.7. be able to reason logically. 26.2.8. use critical thinking and Biblical criteria for evaluation. 26.2.9. develop good citizenship through understanding and appreciating the Christian basis of freedom, human dignity, and acceptance of authority. 26.2.10. develop understanding of and appreciation for GodÃ¢â¬â¢s world and manÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility to use and preserve it properly. 26.2.11. develop an appreciation of the fine arts through study and personal expression. 26.2.12. develop physical skill and coordination through participation in physical education and athletic activities 26.3. In personal and social development, learners should: (Isaiah 54:13,14; Matthew 6:19-21; 19:4-6; John 13:34, 35; Romans 8:14-17,31,32; 1 Corinthians 6:13,15,19,20; 7:10-16; 9:27; Ephesians 1:3-6; 5:15,16,22-33; 6:1-4; Colossians 2:10; 1 Thessalonians 4:8-12; 2 Thessalonians 3:10-13; 1 Timothy 6:10,17; Hebrews 13:5) 26.3.1. develop a healthy personality based on properly understanding and accepting themselves as unique individuals created in the image of God. 26.3.2. learn to respect others because they are also made in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s image. 26.3.3. become contributing members of society, realizing the interdependence of one person on another. 26.3.4. appreciate time as a God-given commodity and the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility for using it effectively. 26.3.5. develop a Biblical view of work and the prerequisite attitudes and skills for success in employment. 26.3.6. develop Biblical attitudes toward marriage and the family. 26.3.7. develop physical fitness, good health habi ts, and wise use of the body as the temple of God.26.3.8. develop a Biblical attitude toward material things. VII. The Nature and Role of the Teacher 27. We affirm that a teacher is a presenter of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s truth and a guide to its discovery by students through the ministry of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Holy Spirit. (Isaiah 30:20,21; Jeremiah 3:15; 1 Corinthians 12:4-11,28-31; Colossians 1:28,29). We deny that any teacher can, without the cooperation of the Holy Spirit, guide others adequately to an understanding of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s truth. 28. We affirm that a teacher who is a good example in the spiritual realm must consciously and deliberately have accepted Jesus Christ as personal Savior and Lord. (1 Timothy 4:11,12). We deny that a teacher who denies Jesus Christ as personal Savior and Lord can be a suitable example in spiritual matters. (2 Timothy 3:5-7). 29. We affirm that a teacher is one who models the learning process by being a seeker of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s truth as revealed in the Bible and by applying that truth to his own life. (Ezra 7:10; Jeremiah 29:13; Luke 6:40). We deny that a teacher should avoid seeking GodÃ¢â¬â¢s truth or should seek the truth solely in ways others than through the Bible and a personal relationship with Jesus Christ and God the Father. 30. We affirm that teachers must know the content or subject matter to be taught. (Luke 4:4,8,12,16-22; 1 Timothy 6:2-5). We deny that it is possible to teach adequately without a thorough knowledge of the subject matter to be learned by students. (1 Timothy 1:7; 2 Timothy 2:1,2). 31. We affirm that teachers must create conditions that result in learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ desire to learn. (Luke 2:46,47,49,52). We deny that it is possible to produce adequate learning in students who are not motivated to learn. (Proverbs 5:12,13,22,23) 32. We affirm that verbal communication used by teachers must be understood by and have the same meaning for both teachers and learners. (Ephesians 4:29; 2 Timothy 1:13). We deny that it is possible for teachers to produce adequate learning in students when they use language or ideas outside studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ daily life and language. (Ephesians 4:29) 33. We affirm that teachers must teach what is unknown through what is already known by learners. (Mark 11:12-14,20-24). We deny that it is possible for learners to learn adequately that which is not based on previous learning or experien ce. (Matthew 6:26-31). 34. We affirm that teachers should give students the opportunity to produce in their own minds the ideas or truths, and to become skillful at performing for themselves the acts or skills, to be learned. (Luke 9:1,2,6; 10:1,9,17). We deny that teachers should require students to acquire knowledge or skills without encouraging original thinking and applications of what they learn to other situations. 35. We affirm that teachers should confirm and test learning by review, repetition, and practical application, where necessary. (Luke 24:44; John 21:15-17). We deny that learning is adequately established generally by having students go once through a learning experience and then be tested for a mark or grade. (Matthew 14:15-21; 15:32-34). IX. Methodology of Education 36. We affirm that there is a variety of teaching and learning methods that may be appropriate for specific curriculum content with a particular learner or group of learners. A limited list of examples follows: 36.1. Demonstration (Matthew 6:9-15: Mark 6:41) 36.2. Involvement of students in learning (Mark 6:7-12) 36.3. Discipline and correction (Mark 11:15-17; 2 Timothy 3:15) 36.4. Discovery (Mark 14:66-72)36.5. Familiar Illustrations (Luke 6:4) 36.6. Individualized instruction (John 3:2-21; 4:5-26; Luke 19:1-8) 36.7. Lecture, formal teaching (Luke 6:20-49; 1 Timothy 4:13) 36.8. Memorization (2 Timothy 3:15) 36.9. Practice (Matthew 10; Luke chs. 9,10; 1 Timothy 5:4) 36.10. Questions and answers (Matthew 16:13-18; Luke 6:39) 36.11. Repetition (Matthew 16:21; 17:22,23; 20:18,19; 26:1) 36.12. Review (Luke 24:44) 36.13. Small group activity (Matthew 17:1-9; Mark 6:7-12; Luke 10:1-11) 36:14. Visual aids (Matthew 22:19-21; Luke 13:19) We deny that there is one teaching method that should be used consistently to the exclusion of others. 37. We affirm that learning is most effective for all learners when more than one instructional modality is used, such as visual, auditory, and kinesthetic modalities. (Matthew 14:27-33). We deny that learning is effective for all learners when one instructional modality is used exclusively. X. Responsibility for Education ROLE OF PARENTS 38. We affirm that God entrusts children to their parents for their nurture and education; that parents have both a right and a duty to raise their children in a manner consistent with Biblical standards of responsible moral conduct; and that parents have the right, therefore, to educate their own children at home or to delegate the task to schools. (Deuteronomy 4:9; 6,7; 11:19; Proverbs 6:20,21; Ephesians 6:4) We deny that civil government or any other entity has legitimate authority to supersede parents in the nurture and education of their children, and that governing agencies have legitimate authority to compel students to attend public schools. (1 Timothy 5:4)39. We affirm that parents have both a right an a duty to teach their children about biological reproduction and sexual health and morality. (Genesis 35:22; 49:4; Leviticus 20:10-21; Deuteronomy 6:6,7; 22:22-30; 23:17; Proverbs 6:20-29) We deny that civil government on any level has legitimate authority to usurp parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ responsibility to teach children about sexuality and reproduction or to establish mandatory sex education classes for children. ROLE OF SCHOOLS 40. We affirm that it is a schoolsÃ¢â¬â¢ responsibility to assist and to cooperate closely with parents in every aspect of a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s education. (Mark 9:17-27). We deny that schools have no responsibility to assist and to cooperate with parents in the education of their children. 41. We affirm that it is the responsibility of the schools to be sensitive to the wishes and values of parents with respect to the content and methodology of their childrensÃ¢â¬â¢ education. (Philippians 3:5,6). We deny that it is the right of schools to decide arbitrarily and unilaterally what values system shall be the basis for the content and methodology of their studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ education. 42. We affirm that a school is an extension of the home, existing to supplement parentÃ¢â¬â¢s primary responsibility to educate their children. (Ephesians 6:1-4; 1 Timothy 3:4,5). We deny that schools have the right to supplant parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ primary responsibility to educate their children.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
At the 1848 Seneca Falls Womens Rights Convention, the body considered both a Declaration of Sentiments, modeled on the 1776 Declaration of Independence, and a series of resolutions. On the first day of the convention, July 19, only women were invited; the men who attended were asked to observe and not participate. The women decided to accept the votes of men for both the Declaration and Resolutions, so final adoption was part of the business of the second day of the convention. All of the resolutions were adopted, with few changes from the originals written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott before the convention. In the History of Womans Suffrage, vol. 1, Elizabeth Cady Stanton reports that the resolutions were all adopted unanimously, except the resolution on women voting, which was more contentious. On the first day, Elizabeth Cady Stanton spoke strongly for including the right to vote among the rights called for. Frederick Douglass spoke on the second day of the convention in support of womens suffrage, and that is often credited with swinging the final vote to endorse that resolution. One final resolution was introduced by Lucretia Mott on the evening of the second day, and it was adopted: Resolved, That the speedy success of our cause depends upon the zealous and untiring efforts of both men and women, for the overthrow of the monopoly of the pulpit, and for the securing to woman an equal participation with men in the various trades, professions and commerce. Note: the numbers are not in the original, but are included here to make discussion of the document easier. Resolutions Whereas, the great precept of nature is conceded to be, that man shall pursue his own true and substantial happiness, Blackstone, in his Commentaries, remarks, that this law of Nature being coeval with mankind, and dictated by God himself, is of course superior in obligation to any other. It is binding over all the globe, in all countries, and at all times; no human laws are of any validity if contrary to this, and such of them as are valid, derive all their force, and all their validity, and all their authority, mediately and immediately, from this original; Therefore, Resolved, That such laws as conflict, in any way, with the true and substantial happiness of woman, are contrary to the great precept of nature, and of no validity; for this is superior in obligation to any other. Resolved, That all laws which prevent woman from occupying such a station in society as her conscience shall dictate, or which place her in a position inferior to that of man, are contrary to the great precept of nature, and therefore of no force or authority. Resolved, That woman is mans equal -- was intended to be so by the Creator, and the highest good of the race demands that she should be recognized as such. Resolved, That the women of this country ought to be enlightened in regard to the laws under which they live, that they may no longer publish their degradation, by declaring themselves satisfied with their present position, nor their ignorance, by asserting that they have all the rights they want. Resolved, That inasmuch as man, while claiming for himself intellec tual superiority, does accord to woman moral superiority, it is pre-eminently his duty to encourage her to speak, and teach, as she has an opportunity, in all religious assemblies. Resolved, That the same amount of virtue, delicacy, and refinement of behavior, that is required of woman in the social state, should also be required of man, and the same transgressions should be visited with equal severity on both man and woman. Resolved, That the objection of indelicacy and impropriety, which is so often brought against woman when she addresses a public audience, comes with a very ill grace from those who encourage, by their attendance, her appearance on the stage, in the concert, or in the feats of the circus. Resolved, That woman has too long rested satisfied in the circumscribed limits which corrupt customs and a perverted application of the Scriptures have marked out for her, and that it is time she should move in the enlarged sphere which her great Creator has assigned her. Resolv ed, That it is the duty of the women of this country to secure to themselves their sacred right to the elective franchise. Resolved, That the equality of human rights results necessarily from the fact of the identity of the race in capabilities and responsibilities. Resolved, therefore, That, being invested by the Creator with the same capabilities, and the same consciousness of responsibility for their exercise, it is demonstrably the right and duty of woman, equally with man, to promote every righteous cause, by every righteous means; and especially in regard to the great subjects of morals and religion, it is self-evidently her right to participate with her brother in teaching them, both in private and in public, by writing and by speaking, by any instrumentalities proper to be used, and in any assemblies proper to be held; and this being a self-evident truth, growing out of the divinely implanted principles of human nature, any custom or authority adverse to it, whether modern o r wearing the hoary sanction of antiquity, is to be regarded as self-evident falsehood, and at war with the interests of mankind. Some notes on the words chosen: Resolutions 1 and 2 are adapted from Blackstones Commentaries, with some text taken verbatum. Specifically: Of the Nature of Laws in General, William Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England in Four Books (New York, 1841), 1:27-28.2) (See also: Blackstone Commentaries) The text of resolution 8 also appears in a resolution written by Angelina Grime, and introduced at the female antislavery convention of 1837. More: Seneca Falls Womens Rights Convention | Declaration of Sentiments | Seneca Falls Resolutions | Elizabeth Cady Stanton Speech We Now Demand Our Right to Vote | 1848: Context of the First Womans Rights Convention
Friday, December 27, 2019
WHAT IS MONEY? HOW IS IT CREATED? Orthodox and Heterodox economics both examine what money is. However, their views are different and, historically, many controversies have existed around money; especially after the global financial crisis. Orthodox economists view money as a medium of exchange that replaced barter. They also view money as a store value; a derivative from the medium of exchange. Heterodox economics support that money is a social unit of account, where credits and debts are measured. They agree that money is a store of value, but because oneÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth is another oneÃ¢â¬â¢s debt. With these views in mind their Ã¢â¬Å"originÃ¢â¬ stories are told to help understand the function of money from these two different perspectives. In most Orthodox theory, money is not important by itself. Money is important as it is linked to other variables that are of concern such as unemployment, economic growth or maybe inflation. We cannot define money as the thing used because it changes over time. It used to be rocks, wives, gold and now it is notes. Thus, we define money by its use. Money in the modern economy is a medium of exchange that replaced barter; it is spendable at face value almost immediately and is what lubricates the market mechanism. Money can also be a store value. This is a derivative of the money as a medium of exchange. People hold money to purchase something later. The orthodox view was, firstly, developed in the 1870s when economists were trying to identify theShow MoreRelatedSummary of Money as Debt Essay636 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMoney as Debt The Ã¢â¬Å"Money as DebtÃ¢â¬ was created by Paul Grignon in 2006. It is the most fascinating video I have ever seen. Moreover, I am just amazed how much I have learned in just 47 minutes. This video describes how basic banking system works and answers the question where the money comes from. Years ago, bank used to create money only if they have the real gold with them or someone deposits the gold to bank. But this is not how the bank operates today. Nowadays, banks create money as long asRead MoreHow Money Came Into Existence?1538 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMoney, whether we admit it or not, dominates our lives. Imagine life without money, what would you trade for that car you want to own, or that apartment you have your eyes upon in the posh location of your city? Your labor, services, or would you barter one of your possessions for them? If so, how much of your services would be worth that car, or what would you give up in exchange for the apartment? Predicaments similar to these led to the creation of the medium of exchange called money that solvedRead MoreAnswers to Homework #6951 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesassociated lecture material. 1. What distinguishes money from other assets in the economy? Money is the most liquid asset. 2. What is commodity money? What is fiat money? Which kind do we use? Commodity money may be used for other purposes. Fiat money is useful only as money. 3. What are demand deposits? Why should they be included in the stock of money? Demand deposits are balances in bank accounts that can be accessed on demand by writing a check. They are money, since they are generally acceptedRead MoreAmerican Politics : A Growing Problem For The Political Process969 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWashington has seen what the book calls a Ã¢â¬Å"partisan divideÃ¢â¬ . This means that politics have become so polarized on each side of the aisle, that it has caused a divide on how the country should be ran. The authors have worked extensively inside Washington over the last three decades, making this book high accurate on the events that have spiraled and created the lack of cooperation. They constitute this lack of cooperation on many different issues; including gerrymandering, money in politics, and theRead MoreSocial Security : The United States1220 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesover 80 years social security has provided Americans with money after they reach the minimum age requirement. This money has provided retirement money for millions of people across the country but is now in jeopardy. To get an understanding of the current and future situation of social security itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to understand what social security is, when it was created, why it was created, and also how it has performed since it was created. After getting an understanding of social security I will thenRead MoreHow is outsourcing affecting American Citizens, its not only taking jobs away from us Americans1400 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHow is outsourcing affecting American Citizens, its not only taking jobs away from us Americans but is also hurting our US economy. Outsourcing is when a company such as Apple sends jobs overseas to a country such as China and has factory workers there assemble the product for a much lower price. Yes this lowers the price of products but we have to take into account how many jobs this it taking from American citizens. Outsourcing jobs does lower the price of products but jobs should stay here inRead MoreCitizens United Strong Response Of The United States975 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageselections are r an. Our Supreme Court led by Justice Roberts immediately jumped on passing this law called Citizens United. Citizens United allows big corporations to spend as much money as they want in elections. This means that the corporations can put all of their money towards one candidate or they can put forth all of their money towards advertising for elections. This is good because these corporations can encourage people to become interested enough in elections to actively participate. With more peopleRead MoreDown With The Fed : Eradication Of The Federal Reserve1065 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbetter days, but lack a meaningful understanding of how our financial system works. Almost 100 years ago, the creation of the Federal Reserve Banking System was instated. One could argue that this system is the base of why we are 18 trillion dollars in debt, and rising. The Federal Reserve Banking System has contributed to our economic crises and should be abolished. The system is debt-based, has a monopo ly on the creation of the debt-based money, causes perpetual debt with momentum, operated by non-governmentRead MoreThe True Origin Of Debt1257 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthat dealt with money. Many argue that money does not buy you happiness however then explain how money dictates the lives we live. Money has a large effect in our lives but we do not realize this until we grow up and become aware of this ourselves. Nevertheless, how was debt created that we would owe an amount of money due to us borrowing it and using it for our personal pleasure? Without going in the topic of debt and money too much, we were taught at a young age how money has created a mass effectRead MoreThe Zupin Organization and Zimbawe761 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesjudged by how many diplomas we have received, how much money we have made, how many great things we have done. We will be judged by Ã¢â¬ËI was hungry and you gave me food to eat, I was naked and you clothed me, I was homeless and you took me in. Hungry not only for bread - but hungry for love. Naked not only for clothing - but naked for human dignity and respect. Homeless not only for want of a room of bricks - but homeless because of rejection.Ã¢â¬ -Mother Teresa. Based on the reality of what is happening
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Gender Leadership and equality Introduction to Research There are different aspects of gender equality that effect leadership roles. My research focuses on the trends, relationships, and theories that effect men and women acquiring leadership roles in organizations. Gender equality is an ongoing focus of equality in the work forces of society. The issues of gender bias and gender stereotypes have been advances since the decades of 50s and 60s. Women in society are becoming more independent and successful. Fortunately, this has inspired many women to step forward and take that challenge of leadership. Most of the issues in gender equality differ in certain environments in society. Some places in the Middle East genders are suppressed due to religion or culture. Both religion and culture can play a major role with gender leadership. In many Native American tribes, the women had a major say in the fate of the tribe and had a right seat to the council and leader of the tribe. Even today there are several reservations that currently have females as the Chairperson or Head Leader of their tribe or have had female leaders in the past. Many cities across the nation have female mayors as well as female senators and governors. Some argue that our next president of the United States will be a female or should be a female. Many environmental factors measure the affect leadership roles. Certain communities welcome gender equality and have leadership roles that areShow MoreRelatedImportance Of Gender Equality1124 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGender equality is an issue that many organizations have been fighting for many years. This has been achieved through the formation of organizations to fight on behalf of each gender. For many years, women have been left behind in many issues in the society. Men have always been more considered as compared to women. Women have not been given opportunities they deserve in the society. They have not been offered a chance in education, work and leadership as they deserve. For instance, it is hard forRead MoreFeminism : Why Should It Exist And Be Required?1428 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesapproaches, and ideologies directed towards advocating for gender equality for all. Feminism is a movement that seeks to achieve equality and social rights for everyone in all key areas which includes; education, personal, economic, employment, cultural sphere of human endeavors. While it is said by others that feminism is only about the women and making them the dominant gender of all, it is the changemaking of the world for gender equality and the chance for life changing moments for women. FirstRead MoreThe Foundation Of Emma Watson s Career1328 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesProvide a brief introduction that includes background information which describes how this person came to their position of leadership (approx. 250 words) The foundation of Emma WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s career came from starring in the Harry Potter films where she auditioned eight times for the role and her determination was highly visible. She was shown as a very intelligent girl and from this became the face of someone who challenged conformity and stereotypes. People see Emma as a very successful person as sheÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreIntroduction. Women Across The World Struggle To Make Their1454 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmake their voices heard so that todayÃ¢â¬â¢s challenges can be an aspiration in equality for the future. To understand the struggle women are facing around the world, individuals look to feminists and conflict theories that empower and drive domination and oppression. Feminist theorists like West and Zimmerman, MacKinnon, and Smith defend womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights and call for an open and organized society that promotes equality for all genders, ethnic, cultural, and religious groups. Additionally, one of the conflictRead MoreLeadership And Management Of The Workplace704 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Leadership in Gender Equality in the Workplace SEYEDEELAHE MEHRDEL West Coast University Leadership and Management Coleen Poitinger 3/16/2017 Leadership in gender equality in the workplace The need for increased diversity and strong women leadership is an issue in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s healthcare system. The need for gender equality in healthcare system and number of women participating in medical field are recognized. Although women make up a majority of the United States population (50.8 percent)Read MoreGender Is An Institutionalized System Of Social Practices Essay1537 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Gender is more than just a trait of individuals. It is an institutionalized system of social practices for constituting males and females as different in socially significant ways and organizing inequality in terms of those differences. Widely shared gender stereotypes are in effect the Ã¢â¬Å"genetic codeÃ¢â¬ of the gender system, since they constitute the cultural rules by which people perceive and enact gender differences and inequality. (Ridgeway, 2001) Gender is deeply entwined with socialRead MoreWomen s Role For Women1343 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesare raised up knowing that they are the stronger gender and that there are some tasks, which they can perform well than their female counterparts. The debate about equality for both genders has dominated the media over the years, from the times of feminism (the 1980s) to post feminism (Hokowhitu). In politics, the belief about masculinity is still a major issue that has been discussed over the years. Women fight to receive equal treatment in leadership and representation at the governmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ top positionsRead MoreEssay on Historical Roles of Men and Women in Leadership1231 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof leadership gender roles might actually start to make sense. The previous sentence was not an error in thought or printing. Much of modern analysis of gender perspectives in leadership and the roles of men and women seem to forget the thousands of years of history and the more recent, evolution of gender equality, which has taken place to get to where we are at present day. The key word is evolution; we are slowly but steadily evolving into a better and more efficient society through gender equalityRead MoreEssay about Historical roles of men and women in leadership 1217 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof leadership gender roles might actually start to make sense. The previous sentence was not an error in thought or printing. Much of modern analysis of gender perspectives in leadership and the roles of men and women seem to forget the thousands of years of history and the more recent, evolution of gender equality, which has taken place to get to where we are at present day. The key word is evolution; we are slowly but steadily evolving into a better and more efficient society through gender equalityRead MoreGender Inequality And The Corporate World : How Do You Feel About Women Holding Higher Positions Within Corporations?1516 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGender Inequality in the Corporate World How do you feel about women holding higher positions within corporations? In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, there are several inequalities between women and men. These inequalities between women and men have been around since the beginning of time and will always be a factor. Gender inequality can be seen in many different ways across our society today. One major area that this inequality can be seen is in the workforce. There are many women who have jobs in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s